Virtually every consecutive day the cow lies down to chew its cud at a different time of day. Notice that they lie down to rest a bit later each day until it gets to mid afternoon before they start cudding. (represented by the brown cow in the Astro Calendar). Then they switch to resting at mid morning and cud approximately 50 minutes later on consecutive days. There is a pattern to this.

I have been aware of the cow's connection to lunar rhythms since 1990 and over that period have intermittently taken records of when cows are lying down and chewing their cuds. For most of that time I have not had cows of my own to observe and so my records are sparse. Nonetheless I have enough data to confidently say that a cow's rhythm of resting strongly correlates to the 4 key horizon aspects of the Moon. I set out a general rule  below but am also well aware that some refinements could be added to the fundamental rhythm. I encourage others to take up this research.

The rhythm is primarily a synthesis of aspects of lunar and solar rhythms.
There are 4 key aspects in any solar, lunar or planetary day. They relate to the local horizon and are approximately 90 degrees apart.
These 4 aspects are when the sun/moon, planet is:-

1)    RISING,
2)    CULMINATING HIGH (directly overhead - midheaven or MC),
4)    CULMINATING LOW (directly underfoot - lowest point below the horizon or IC).

For the Sun these 4 aspects are called:-
1)    Sunrise
2)    Midday
3)    Sunset
4)    Midnight.

Each aspect has a unique quality to it. We all know how special Sunrise is and have experienced the 'flatness' of midday. Can we become aware of the qualities of Moonrise and the Moon-mid"day"?

The 4 aspects of the Moon could be joined together to form the arms of a cross. Picture a lunar clock with 4 hands approximately 90 degrees apart. 

4 times a day, when the Moon arrives at these key positions I imagine a distinct tone sounding through Nature.
The closest of the 4 lunar arms to midday (Sun key aspect) is when the cows are inclined to chew their cuds.

Example 1:-     the Moon is setting at 11:10 and at IC at 17:04.
                        Midday is between these two times but closer to Moonset.
                        The cows will go down around 11:10.

Example 2:-     the Moon is culminating at 8:25 and rising at 14:20.
                        Midday is between these two times but closer to the Moon culminating.
                        The cows will go down around 14:20.

NB I have not managed to investigate what happens at night. However around clear night Full Moons there is a tendency for the cows to get up late in the morning after prolonged night grazing.
These findings have not been confirmed by anyone else.

The lunar phase cycle (LUNATION) is 29.5 and the 4 key aspects times are intimately related to the phases and we can note a pattern. 

3 days either side of New(No) Moon
Cows cud when the Moon is at the
overhead aspect
3 days either side of Full Moon
Cows cud when the Moon is at the
underfoot aspect
3 days either side of Waxing Half Moon
Cows cud when the Moon is at the
rising aspect
3 days either side of Waning Half Moon
Cows cud when the Moon is at the
setting aspect

Transition times (represented by the outlined cow in the Astro Calendar) are when the cows are switching from an afternoon to a morning resting period in response to these sol-lunar rhyths. They could be resting and chewing their cud in the morning, afternoon or even both. The impulse is not clear, it is switchin from afternoon to pre noon.

Times are generally between 9am and 3pm. Later in summer.
When the key aspects start to synchronise with the lunar perigee/apogee rhythm then we can have 4 days either side of an aspect and only 2 days either side of an adjacent aspect.
Strong weather conditions can also change the rhythm.

Cows are very strongly connected to lunar rhythms. Bulls and steers are not so strongly connected unless they are running with the herd (with mature cows). Dairy cows having additional rhythms imposed upon them by milking times and so they will not strictly adhere to the times given above. Pet cows are influenced by human rhythms, which can override lunar rhythms. New stock to the property take a few days to become sensitised ("tune in"). I suspect dehorned cattle would be less sensitive to these rhythms but I cannot say that categorically.
Actively working with these rhythms changes our management practices and reduces animal stress e.g. not moving stock at a cudding time and if they are not resting and cudding at the normal time then it could be an indication that their feed is too poor.

Not all animals are connected to lunar rhythms. Some are associated with Mars, others to Jupiter and so on. All are influenced by the Sun as well. Marine organism are even more strongly connected to lunar rhythms than cows.
Fish are said to feed (and therefore inclined to take bait) when the Moon is at one of these key quarter positions of RISING, OVERHEAD (MC), SETTING and UNDERFOOT (IC), especially when they coincide with dawn or dusk (New and Full Moons).
Apparently some fisherman take advantage of fish feeding 2 hours before Moonrise and 1 hour after Moonset. I am not a fisherman.


No adjustment has been made for Daylight Saving.
CUD(ding) means cows are actively chewing their cud and usually lying down for 1 to 2 hours.  Times given are mid-period. 

The rows in the chart below conform to the 4 wavey rows in the Antipodean and Northern Star Calendars for Moon's horizon aspects.

For events like rising and setting times you do not have to adjust times for time differences brought about through LONGITUDE ie as in TIME ZONES like Pacific Time.
Sunrise or Moonrise or MarsRise will be at the same time for anybody at the same LATITUDE and ALTITUDE (if everyone had a flat horizon - hills to the east will make a difference).
The Northern Hemispher Astro Calendar rise/set times were based on 45 degrees north (San Francisco).
The Antipodean Astro Calendar rise/set times were based on 34 degrees south (Sydney).
If your latitude is very different then so will be the rising times. 
All other times in the calendar will need changing unless you are on AEST or Pacific Time as they are not based on the Earth's horizon but on aspects to the Sun or stars. If you would like the Sun or Moon rise/set for your locale they can be obtained from:-


    Everything living has an electro-magnetic field around it. The Earth has such a field around it .... is  it/she living? Living organisms have electromagnetic fields with low frequencies from 3-10,000 Hz and which can respond (resonate) to Extremely Low Frequency waves. The very long ELF waves are able to penetrate biological material and concrete alike. Many natural geophysical phenomena (especially thunderstorms) generate these waves as do human beings artificially, with low frequency distribution networks. ELF waves are abundant at sunrise and during intense solar activity, they are more intense during the day than at night, and they are stronger where ore pockets or moisture exists.